Specializing in Canine and Feline Neurology and Neurosurgery for over 35 years

General Library


All   0-9   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

inner ear

Part of the ear involved in hearing and balance.  It is composed of the semicircular canals (control balance), vestibule, and the cochlea (amplify sound).

Related Words

cochlea  ;  ear  ;  semicircular canals



The distribution or supply of nerves to a part.

Related Words



Neuron that receives input from one neuron and projects to another neuron within the spinal cord, allowing a greater degree of complexity of movement control.

Related Words

neuron  ;  spinal cord


intervertebral disk

Layers of fibrocartilage between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae, consisting of the annulus fibrosus and the nucleus pulposus; acts as a cushion and shock absorber for the spinedisk can also be spelled "disc".

►click here to learn more(see figure 62.1-A)-link provided by: University of Pennsylvania, College of Veterinary Medicine 

Related Words

annulus fibrosus ; fiber ; nucleus pulposus ; spine ; vertebra

intervertebral disk disease

Condition affecting the spine, in which a tear in the outer, fibrous ring (annulus fibrosus) of an intervertebral disk allows the soft, central portion (nucleus pulposus) to bulge out. This tear in the disk ring may result in the pressurized contents striking and compressing the spinal cord, causing pain and/or paresis.  The disease progresses when persistent compression damages neurons and blood vessels causing the release of inflammatory chemical mediators and decreasing blood flow to the spinal cord resulting in severe pain.  Type I disk disease occurs with a total rupture of the dorsal part of the annulus and extrusion of the nucleus pulposus into the spinal canal.  Type II disk disease occurs with a bulging of the annulus fibrosis into the spinal canal.


Related Words

annulus fibrosus ; dorsal ; intervertebral disk ; nerve root ; neuron ; nucleus pulposus ; paresis ; spinal canal ; spinal cord ; spine

intracranial pressure

Pressure in the skull exerted by the brain, cerebrospinal fluid, and the cerebral blood supply.

Related Words

brain ; cerebral cortex ; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

intrathecal space

Within a sheath; an intrathecal injection goes through the theca of the spinal cord and into the subarachnoid space.


Related Words
spinal cord  ;  subarachnoid space


Within a vein.



An atom with a positive (cation) or negative (anion) charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.


ionizing radiation

Any radiation (e.g. X-rays) capable of displacing electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby producing (positively) charged particles or ions. At high doses, ionizing radiation increases chemical activity inside cells and can lead to health risks, including cancer.

Related Words

ion  ;  x-ray


Display #