Specializing in Canine and Feline Neurology and Neurosurgery for over 35 years

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Part of the auditory and vestibular systems, it detects sound and helps to maintain balance.  It is composed of three main parts:  the outer ear (pinna, ear canal, surface of ear drum), middle ear, and inner ear (cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals).

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Related Words

cochlea ; inner ear ; middle ear ; semicircular canals ; vestibular system


The outermost of the three primary germ layers of the embryo which ultimately develops into the nervous system (neuroectoderm).


Related Words
nervous system


The presence of extra amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue space; swelling.  It may be localized due to venous or lymphatic obstruction or increased vascular permeability or it could be systemic due to heart failure or kidney disease.

Related Words

disease  ;  kidney


Pathway originating from the central nervous system toward the peripheral end organs, i.e., away from one structure, toward another.

Related Words

central nervous system (CNS) ; motor nerve ; peripheral nervous system (PNS) 


A disease caused by a type of rickettsial organism (Ehrlichia canis being the most common); also called Tick Fever.

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Related Words

disease ; rickettsia

electrocardiograph (ECG or EKG)

A medical instrument used to assess cardiac function by measuring the electrical activity of the heart.  With each heartbeat, an electrical signal spreads from the top of the heart to the bottom.  As it travels, the signal causes the heart to contract and pump blood and sets the rhythm of the heartbeat. The process repeats with each new heartbeat. ECG detects these signals with electrodes that are placed on the body.  It shows how fast the heart is beating, whether the rhythm of the heartbeat is steady or irregular, and the strength and timing of electrical signals as they pass through each part of the heart.   


Medical techniques used to record responses to electrical stimulation; used to diagnose and evaluate conditions affecting the neuromuscular, muscular, or nervous systems.


electroencephalography (EEG)

The recording of the electrical potentials emanating spontaneously from nerve cells in the brain.

Related Words
brain  ;  nerve

electromagnetic (EM) radiation

A self-propagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components.  These components oscillate at right angles to each other and to the direction of propagation, and are in phase with each other.  Electromagnetic radiation is classified into types according to the frequency of the wave.  These types include, in order of increasing frequency: radio waves, microwaves, terahertz radiation, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays and gamma rays.  EM radiation carries energy and momentum, which may be imparted when it interacts with matter.  The waves with the higher frequency have shorter wavelengths and higher energy. 

Related Words

electromyography (EMG)

The recording of the electrical activity in skeletal muscle.


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