Specializing in Canine and Feline Neurology and Neurosurgery for over 35 years

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vertebral osteomyelitis

Inflammation of the vertebra, without concurrent disk infection, usually caused by either a bacteria or fungus.

Related Words

bacteria ; disk ; fungus ; infection ; inflammation ; vertebra

vestibular apparatus

The portions of the inner ear (vestibule and three semicircular canals) that work, as part of the vestibular system, with the brain to maintain the body’s orientation in space, balance, and posture.  

Related Words
brain  ;  inner ear  ;  vestibular system

vestibular disease

A general term referring to any abnormality of the vestibular system; a problem in the inner ear, vestibulocochlear nerve, or the brain can affect the vestibular system.

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Related Words

brain ; inner ear ; vestibular system ; vestibulocochlear nerve

vestibular system

The vestibular system senses the position of the head and body in space, in relation to gravity and movement.  Maintains balance and coordinates eye movements with movement of the head.  The receptors for the vestibular system are located in the inner ear, adjacent to the hearing receptors.  Vestibular information is transmitted from the innear ear via the vestibulocochlear nerve to the lower portion of the brain where it is processed by the brainstem and cerebellum.

►click here to learn more-link provided by: University of Minnesota, College of Veterinary Medicine 

Related Words

brain ; brainstem ; inner ear ; vestibulocochlear nerve

vestibulocochlear nerve

Cranial nerve VIII; responsible for transmitting sound and equilibrium (balance) information from the inner ear to the brain.

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►click here to learn more (press>cranial nerves)-link provided by:University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine 
►click here to learn more (this page may take a few moments to load)-link provided by:University of Minnesota, College of Veterinary Medicine


Related Words
brain  ;  cranial nerves  ;  inner ear


A virus is a minute infectious agent (about 100 times smaller than bacteria) that cannot be seen under a light microscope.  They lack independent metabolism, are only able to replicate within the host cell, carry either DNA or RNA as their genetic material, and are protected by a protein coat.  The body's immune system is usually able to eliminate harmful viruses and vaccines provide immunity to a particular viral infection.  Antibiotics have no effect on viruses but antiviral medications suppress replication.

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von Willebrand disease

An inherited bleeding disorder caused by a defect or deficiency of a blood clotting protein, called von Willebrand factor.

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