Specializing in Canine and Feline Neurology and Neurosurgery for over 35 years

General Library


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The layer of epithelial cells that lines internal body structures such as the heart cavities, blood and lymph vessels, and some glands.

Related Words

blood  ;  epithelium


An increased ability to see certain tissues after the injection of contrast material in the blood stream during  imaging procedures, e.g. X-ray, CT or MRI. 

Related Words

computed tomography (CT) ; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ; x-ray


Posterior displacement of the eyeball into the bony orbit.


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Chronic brain disorder of various etiologies (i.e. causes or origins of the disease) characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. 

Related Words
brain  ;  disease  ;  seizure


A hormone synthesized in the adrenal medulla and released into the bloodstream during fight-or-flight response: stimulates muscle contraction of arteries and capillaries, increases blood pressure, stimulates the heart muscle, accelerates the heart rate, and increases cardiac output; also called adrenaline.

Related Words
adrenal gland  ;  norepinephrine

epiphysis cerebri

See pineal gland.

Related Words

pineal gland


The covering of internal and external surfaces of the body including the lining of vessels and other small cavities.  One of the 4 primary tissues (connective, muscular, and nerve) of the body and grouped into 3 types (squamous, cuboidal and columnar).


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evoked potentials

Procedures which record the brain’s activity in response to the stimulation of specific sensory pathways (e.g. auditory, visual, general sensory). 

Related Words

brain ; brainstem auditory-evoked response test (BAER) ; sensory nerve

facial nerve

Cranial nerve VII;  controls most facial movements, secretion of tears and saliva, and involved in the sensation of taste.

►click here to learn more-link provided by: University of Minnesota, College of Veterinary Medicine 
►click here to learn more (press>cranial nerves)-link provided by: University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine 
►click here to learn more (this page may take a few moments to load)-link provided by: University of Minnesota, College of Veterinary Medicine 


Related Words
cranial nerves


Spontaneous firing of an axon resulting in a visible twitch of all the muscle fibers it contacts; indicative of denervation.

Related Words

axon  ;  denervation  ;  fiber


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