Specializing in Canine and Feline Neurology and Neurosurgery for over 35 years

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dropped jaw

See trigeminal neuritis.

Related Words
trigeminal neuritis

dura mater

The outermost, toughest and most fibrous of the three membranes of the meninges which covers the brain and spinal cord.

►click here to learn more (brain)-link provided by: University of Minnesota, College of Veterinary Medicine 
►click here to learn more (spinal cord)-link provided by: University of Minnesota, College of Veterinary Medicine 

Related Words

brain ; fiber ; meninges ; spinal cord

dural venous sinuses

Venous channels found between layers of dura mater in the brain.  They receive blood (from internal and external veins of the brain) and cerebrospinal fluid (from the subarachnoid space via the arachnoid villa) which ultimately empty into the internal jugular vein; also called dural sinuses, cerebral sinuses, and cranial sinuses.

►click here to learn more-link provided by: University of Minnesota, College of Veterinary Medicine

Related Words

arachnoid villi ; blood ; brain ; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ; dura mater ; subarachnoid space


Disease of the autonomic nervous system.

Related Words
autonomic system  ;  disease


Decreased or abnormal sense of smell.



Difficulty in prehension (getting food into the mouth), chewing and swallowing.



Part of the auditory and vestibular systems, it detects sound and helps to maintain balance.  It is composed of three main parts:  the outer ear (pinna, ear canal, surface of ear drum), middle ear, and inner ear (cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals).

►click here to learn more-link provided by: www.peteducation.com 

Related Words

cochlea ; inner ear ; middle ear ; semicircular canals ; vestibular system


The outermost of the three primary germ layers of the embryo which ultimately develops into the nervous system (neuroectoderm).


Related Words
nervous system


The presence of extra amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue space; swelling.  It may be localized due to venous or lymphatic obstruction or increased vascular permeability or it could be systemic due to heart failure or kidney disease.

Related Words

disease  ;  kidney


Pathway originating from the central nervous system toward the peripheral end organs, i.e., away from one structure, toward another.

Related Words

central nervous system (CNS) ; motor nerve ; peripheral nervous system (PNS) 

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