Specializing in Canine and Feline Neurology and Neurosurgery for over 35 years

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The actual seizure event.

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Occuring without known cause; in the context of epilepsy, indicates cases in which no lesion is present and a genetic cause is presumed.

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idiopathic facial paralysis

An idiopathic disorder resulting in unilateral or bilateral paresis or paralysis of the facial muscles in dogs and cats. 

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idiopathic ; lateral ; paralysis ; paresis

idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis

Condition of unknown cause, characterized by inflammation of the nerves and nerve roots; also called coonhound paralysis.

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idiopathic ; inflammation ; nerve ; polyradiculoneuritis

immune-mediated disease

Condition which results from abnormal activity of the body's immune system; autoimmune disease is a subset of immune-mediated disease.


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autoimmune disease

immune-mediated meningoencephalitis

Inflammation of the brain and meninges resulting from abnormal activity of the body’s immune system.

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brain ; immune-mediated disease ; inflammation ; meninges


Inability to control urination and defecation.



An area of tissue damage due to ischemia resulting from obstruction of circulation commonly by a thrombus or embolus.

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embolus  ;  ischemia  ;  thrombus


Invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues which may result in cellular injury due to competitive metabolism, toxins, intracellular replication, or antigen-antibody response.

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antibody ; antigen ; microorganism ; toxin


A localized protective response elicited by injury or destruction of tissues, which serves to destroy, dilute, or wall off both the injurous agent and the injured tissue.  The five cardinal signs of inflammation include:

  1. redness (rubor)
  2. swelling (tumor)
  3. heat (calor)
  4. pain (dolor)
  5. loss of function (functio laesa)

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