Specializing in Canine and Feline Neurology and Neurosurgery for over 35 years


A localized protective response elicited by injury or destruction of tissues, which serves to destroy, dilute, or wall off both the injurous agent and the injured tissue.  The five cardinal signs of inflammation include:

  1. redness (rubor)
  2. swelling (tumor)
  3. heat (calor)
  4. pain (dolor)
  5. loss of function (functio laesa)

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